Backward integrationAcquisition by a firm of its suppliers.
Economic integrationEconomic integration
Another term for fragmentation. Used by Feenstra (1998).
Deep integrationDeep integration
Refers to economic integration that goes well beyond removal of formal barriers to trade and includes various ways of reducing the international burden of differing national regulations, such as mutual recognition and harmonization. Contrasts with shallow integration.
Economic integration refers to reducing barriers among countries to transactions and to movements of goods, capital, and labor, including harmonization of laws, regulations, and standards. Common forms include FTAs, customs unions, and common markets. Sometimes classified as shallow integration vs. deep integration.
Forward integrationForward integration
Acquisition by a firm of a larger part of its distribution chain, moving it closer to selling directly to its ultimate customers.
Further SuggestionsTrade integration
Economies of vertical integration