Backward integrationAcquisition by a firm of its suppliers.
Economies of vertical integrationEconomies of vertical integration
Produced by achieving lower operating costs by owning all components of production and sometimes sales outlets rather than contracting for companies in the outside marketplace.
Economic integrationEconomic integration
Another term for fragmentation. Used by Feenstra (1998).
Trade integrationTrade integration
The process of increasing a country's participation in world markets through trade, accomplsihed by trade liberalization.
Economic integration refers to reducing barriers among countries to transactions and to movements of goods, capital, and labor, including harmonization of laws, regulations, and standards. Common forms include FTAs, customs unions, and common markets. Sometimes classified as shallow integration vs. deep integration.
Further SuggestionsShallow integration