Margin of safety
Margin of safetyThe term given by Benjamin Graham, 'the father of value investing', to the idea that if you buy shares for less than two thirds of their net asset value, you automatically have a cushion against any deterioration in the company's trading position in the future. Put another way, 'buy cheap'.Graham's view was that it is extremely difficult to accurately predict a company's future earnings. For an investment to be 'safe', therefore, he liked to see a margin between the value of its net current assets and its share price. If the share price was below the net current assets divided by the number of shares in issue, he would consider buying it.One of the problems with Graham's approach is that in bull markets it is very difficult to find companies that fulfil his criteria. A second problem is that many of the fastest growing companies in modern economies are those whose assets are intangible - for instance, the value of their intellectual property. Under the Graham rubric, these sorts of assets would be excluded.
Margin of safetyWith respect to working capital management, the difference between (1) the amount of long-term financing and (2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.
Margin of safety
Marginal rate of transformationMarginal rate of transformation
The increase in output of one good made possible by a one-unit decrease in the output of another, given the technology and factor endowments of a country; thus the absolute value of the slope of the transformation curve.
Margin callMargin call
A demand from a broker to a client to provide more funds to bring a margin account balance up to a required level.
The difference between the cost price of a product and the selling price.In trading, the amount deposited with a broker in order to obtain credit for purchase of shares or futures. The margin is the price of a security less credit advanced by the broker.The difference between a market maker's buying and selling prices. Also known as spread.
Initial marginInitial margin
The payment which investors have to pay to a broker to trade on margin, commonly used in trading futures and contracts for difference. Initial margin is usually set at a percentage of the value of the contracts being traded. For example, a trader who buys long CFDs with a contract value of £12,000 might be required to deposit £2,400 (20%) with the broker as initial margin.The attraction of margin trading for traders is that they are effectively using the broker's money to speculate, and if successful can get a higher return on investment than by only using their own money. Put another way, their £2,400 of cash buys them exposure to £12,000 of shares, whereas if they were trading the shares themselves it would give them exposure only to £2,400 of shares.The flip side is that margin trading magnifies losses as well as profits, so if the trader is unsuccessful it can be very risky.
Marginal productMarginal product
In a production function, the marginal product of a factor is the increase in output due to a unit increase in the input of the factor; that is, the partial derivative of the production function with respect to the factor. In a competitive equilibrium, the equilibrium price of any factor is its marginal value product in every sector where it is employed.
Further SuggestionsMarginal revenue
Initial margin requirement
Marginal value product
Margin account (stocks)
Marginal propensity to import
Marginal revenue product
marginal tax rate
Gross profit margin
Buy on margin
Marginal rate of substitution