Margin of safety
Margin of safetyThe term given by Benjamin Graham, 'the father of value investing', to the idea that if you buy shares for less than two thirds of their net asset value, you automatically have a cushion against any deterioration in the company's trading position in the future. Put another way, 'buy cheap'.Graham's view was that it is extremely difficult to accurately predict a company's future earnings. For an investment to be 'safe', therefore, he liked to see a margin between the value of its net current assets and its share price. If the share price was below the net current assets divided by the number of shares in issue, he would consider buying it.One of the problems with Graham's approach is that in bull markets it is very difficult to find companies that fulfil his criteria. A second problem is that many of the fastest growing companies in modern economies are those whose assets are intangible - for instance, the value of their intellectual property. Under the Graham rubric, these sorts of assets would be excluded.
Margin of safetyWith respect to working capital management, the difference between (1) the amount of long-term financing and (2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.
Margin of safety
Margin accountMargin account
An account with a broker where a client is able to purchase securities on credit after margin has been deposited.
Margin account (stocks)Margin account (stocks)
A leverageable account in which stocks can be purchased for a combination of cash and a loan. The loan in the margin account is collateralized by the stock; if the value of the stock drops sufficiently, the owner will be asked to either put in more cash, or sell a portion of the stock. Margin rules are federally regulated, but margin requirements and interest may vary among broker/dealers.
Marginal productMarginal product
In a production function, the marginal product of a factor is the increase in output due to a unit increase in the input of the factor; that is, the partial derivative of the production function with respect to the factor. In a competitive equilibrium, the equilibrium price of any factor is its marginal value product in every sector where it is employed.
Profit marginProfit margin
Operating profit as a percentage of sales (or turnover). To calculate profit margin, multiply operating profit by 100, and divide the result by turnover.Example: Company X made an operating profit of £500m on a turnover of £3,000m. Profit margin was therefore (500 x 100) / 3000= 16.66%Profit margin tells you about the underlying profitability of a company's trading activities, not whether it is actually making money for shareholders. Note that it is calculated before taking account of interest charges or tax.
Marginal propensity to saveMarginal propensity to save
The fraction of a change in income (or perhaps disposable income) that is saved.
Further SuggestionsMargin trading
Marginal rate of transformation
Buy on margin
Marginal value product
Marginal efficiency of capital
Value marginal product
Marginal propensity to import
Margin requirement (options)
Marginal propensity to consume
OTC margin stock
Net profit margin
Marginal revenue product