Margin of safety
Margin of safetyThe term given by Benjamin Graham, 'the father of value investing', to the idea that if you buy shares for less than two thirds of their net asset value, you automatically have a cushion against any deterioration in the company's trading position in the future. Put another way, 'buy cheap'.Graham's view was that it is extremely difficult to accurately predict a company's future earnings. For an investment to be 'safe', therefore, he liked to see a margin between the value of its net current assets and its share price. If the share price was below the net current assets divided by the number of shares in issue, he would consider buying it.One of the problems with Graham's approach is that in bull markets it is very difficult to find companies that fulfil his criteria. A second problem is that many of the fastest growing companies in modern economies are those whose assets are intangible - for instance, the value of their intellectual property. Under the Graham rubric, these sorts of assets would be excluded.
Margin of safetyWith respect to working capital management, the difference between (1) the amount of long-term financing and (2) the sum of fixed assets and the permanent component of current assets.
Margin of safety
Gross marginGross margin
The difference between the selling price of an item and the purchase or manufacturing cost, expressed as a percentage of the selling price.For example, if it costs a company £6 to manufacture an item and the selling price is £10, the gross margin is:(£10 - £6) / £10 x 100 = 40%When looking at a company's Report and Accounts, the gross margin of the business as a whole is its turnover less the cost of sales, divided by the turnover, multiplied by 100.For example: (£2,000,000 - £1,200,000) / £2,000,000 x 100 = 40%
Marginal revenue productMarginal revenue product
The additional revenue generated by the extra output from employing one more unit of a factor of production. In a competitive industry this equals the marginal value product, but with imperfect competition it is smaller, due to the implied price reduction. Determines factor prices in competitive factor markets.
Allows investors to buy securities by borrowing money from a broker. The margin is the difference between the market value of a stock and the loan a broker makes. Related: Security deposit (initial).
Profit marginProfit margin
Indicator of profitability. The ratio of earnings available to stockholders to net sales. Determined by dividing net income by revenue for the same 12-month period. Result is shown as a percentage. Also known as net profit margin.
Margin tradingMargin trading
Buying securities, in part, with borrowed money.
Further SuggestionsMarginal tax rate
Marginal rate of transformation
marginal tax rate
Value marginal product
Buy on margin
Operating profit margin
Initial margin requirement
Marginal efficiency of capital
OTC margin stock
Net profit margin
Marginal rate of substitution
Marginal propensity to save