Vertical integrationProduction of different stages of processing of a product within the same firm.
Economies of vertical integrationEconomies of vertical integration
Produced by achieving lower operating costs by owning all components of production and sometimes sales outlets rather than contracting for companies in the outside marketplace.
Backward integrationBackward integration
Acquisition by a firm of its suppliers.
Horizontal integrationHorizontal integration
Production of different varieties of the same product, or different products at the same level of processing, within a single firm. This may, but need not, take place in subsidiaries in different countries.
Shallow integrationShallow integration
Reduction or elimination of tariffs, quotas, and other barriers to trade in goods at the border, such as trade-limiting customs procedures. Contrasts with deep integration.
Economic integration refers to reducing barriers among countries to transactions and to movements of goods, capital, and labor, including harmonization of laws, regulations, and standards. Common forms include FTAs, customs unions, and common markets. Sometimes classified as shallow integration vs. deep integration.
Further SuggestionsDeep integration